Fundamental Rights is a charter of rights contained in part three of the Constitution of India. It guarantees civil liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace and harmony as citizens of India irrespective of caste ,religion ,gender ,place ,etc.
The seven fundamental rights recognized by the Indian constitution are:
|Right to equality: Which includes equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth, and equality of opportunity in matters of employment, abolition of untouchability and abolition of titles.|
|Right to freedom: Which includes freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association or union or cooperatives, movement, residence, and right to practice any profession or occupation , right to life and liberty, protection in respect to conviction in offences and protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.|
|Right against exploitation: Which prohibits all forms of forced labour, child labour and traffic of human beings|
|Right to freedom of religion: Which includes freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion, freedom to manage religious affairs, freedom from certain taxes and freedom from religious instructions in certain educational institutes.|
|Cultural and Educational rights: Preserve the right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture, language or script, and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.|
|Right to constitutional remedies: Which is present for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.|
|Right to education: It is the latest addition to the fundamental rights|
The fundamental duties are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. These duties set in part IV-A of the Constitution, concern individuals and the nation. They are not legally enforceable.
The Fundamental Duties noted in the constitution are as follows:
—It shall be the duty of every citizen of India —
|To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag, the National Anthem and the National Emblem.|
|To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.|
|To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.|
|To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.|
|To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.|
|To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.|
|To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures.|
|To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.|
|To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.|
|To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.|
|Who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward, as the case may be, between the age of six and fourteen years.|
Human rights are moral principles or norms, which describe certain standards of human behavior, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law. They are commonly understood as inalienable, regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status.
Right to life - The right to life is the essential right that a human being has the right not to be killed by another human being.
Freedom from torture- Torture has been used as a method of political re-education, interrogation, punishment, and coercion.
Freedom from slavery - No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Right to a fair trial -
the right to be heard by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal
the right to a public hearing
the right to be heard within a reasonable time
the right to counsel
the right to interpretation
Freedom of speech - Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without censorship subject to limitations, such as on libel, slander, obscenity, incitement to commit a crime, etc.
Freedom of thought, conscience and religion - Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Freedom of movement - Freedom of movement asserts that a citizen of a state in which that citizen is present has the liberty to travel, reside in, and/or work in any part of the state where one pleases within the limits of respect for the liberty and rights of others, and to leave that state and return at any time.
We are an independent body with the responsibility to encourage equality and diversity, eliminate unlawful discrimination, and protect and promote the human rights of everyone in India.
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